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Victoria Sutton, M.P.A., Ph.D., J.D.

Professor of Law

Texas Tech University , School of Law






I.          History of Law and Bioterrorism

            1.2.      Why Examine Law and Bioterrorism?


II.        The Federal Government Role, Federalism and Bioterrorism

            2.1.      Introduction

            2.2.      The Federal Organization the Executive, Legislative and Judicial Roles

It will be too late for Congress to act after bioterrorism attack is launched, op-ed, Lubbock Avalanche Journal (Saturday, Sept. 22, 2001)

            2.3.      The Executive Branch plan for bioterrorism

A Precarious Hot Zone The Presidents Plan to Combat Bioterrorism, 164 The Military Law Review 135 (2000).

            2.4.      How Sept. 11th Changed the Federal Plan

Federal Government Leadership in Bioterrorism Whos In Charge?

            2.5.      Roles of the Federal Departments and Agencies

                        2.5.1.   The Role of the FBI

                        2.5.2.   The Role of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Epidemiological Investigative Service (EIS)

                                      Federal Quarantine Powers

                                      Metropolitan Medical Response System

                                      Epidemiological and Laboratory Capacity Program

                                      Emerging Infections Program

                                      National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Program

                                      National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS)

                                      The Epi-X Project

                                      The Epi Intelligence Service

                        2.5.3.   The Role of FEMA, FAA and the National Security Agency (NSA)

                                      Relationship between FEMA and FAA

                                      National Security Agency (NSA)

                        2.5.4.   The Role of the Department of Agriculture (DOA) and the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)

                        2.5.5.   The Role of the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy (DOE)

                        2.5.6.   The Expanding Role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


                                      Protection of the Nations Water Supply

                        2.5.7.   The Role of the Military

                                      Posse Comitatus


                                      National Guard Bureau


                        2.5.8.   The Role of the Public Health Service (PHS), the Indian Health Service (IHS) and the Department of Veterans Affairs

                                      Public Health Service

                                      Indian Health Service

                                      Department of Veterans Affairs

                        2.5.9.   The Role of the INS

                         2.5.10  The Role of the Federal Trade Commission

             2.6.      The state-national government relationship

                        Bioterrorism Preparation and Response Legislation   The Struggle to Protect States Sovereignty While Preserving National Security

                        6 The Georgetown Public Policy Review 93 (Spring 2001)

             2.7.      President Bushs Proposal for a Department of Homeland Security


III.        State Law and Bioterrorism

            3.1       State powers to address bioterrorism

                                    Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824)

                        3.1.1.   Quarantine powers

                        3.1.2.   Vaccination powers

                                    Jacobson v. Massachusetts , 197 U.S. 11 (1905)

                                    Prince v. Massachusetts , 321 U.S. 156 (1944)

                        3.1.3.   State Emergency Powers

                             Collection of Records and Data

                                               Access to Records

                                               Collection of Samples

                             Control of Property

                             Management of Persons

                                               Declaration of a State of Emergency

                                               National Guard

                                               Human Remains

                                               Professional Licensing Requirements

                             Access to Communications and Public Relations

                        3.1.4.   State Actions for Biodefense

                             State Legislatures

                             State Executives

                             Pacts between States

                        3.1.5.   The Model Act for Emergency State Powers

            3.2       State Common Law and Potential Liabilities as a Result of Bioterrorism

                        3.2.1.       Failure to Prepare or Warn

                                      Adequacy or Inadequacy of a Plan

                                      Failure to Warn of Potential Danger

                                      Failure to Keep Emergency Systems Working

                                      Failure to Enter into a Mutual Aid Agreement

                        3.2.2.        Liability for Damage to Private Property

                                      Public Necessity Doctrine

                                      Public Nuisance

Smith v. Potter, 2001 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 18625 ( Nov. 16, 2001 )


IV.       New Federal Statutes for New Crimes of Bioterrorism

            4.1.      Biological Weapons and Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989.

            4.2.      Anti-Terrorism and Death Penalty Act of 1996

                        United States v.Wise, 221 F.3d 140 (5th Cir. 2000)

                        United States v. Baker, 98 F.3d 330 (8th Cir. 1996)

                        United States v. Slaughter, 116 F. Supp. 2d 688 ( August 29, 2000 )

            4.3.      Pending Cases from 9-11 under the Anti-Terrorism and Death Penalty Act of 1996

                        United States v. John Philip Walker Lindh, (E.D. Va., filed 2002)

                        United States v. Richard Colvin Reid (E.D. Mass, Jan. 16, 2002 )

            4.4.      USA PATRIOT Act

                        4.4.1.   New federal crimes

                        4.4.2.   Fourth Amendment Concerns

                        4.4.3.   Sharing information

                        4.4.4.   Immigrants

            4.5.      Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, P.L. 107-188 (2002)

            4.6.      Evidence and Planning for Use of Biological Weapons

                        United States v. Baker, 98 F.3d 330 (8th Cir. 1996)

            4.7.      Fourth Amendment Search and Seizure

                        4.7.1.   Domestic Application

                                    United States v. Gill, 280 F.3d 923 (9th Crir. 2002)

                                    United States v. Larry Wayne Harris, 961 F. Supp. 1127

                                    (S.D. Ohio, Eastern Div., 1997)

                        4.7.2.   Foreign Application

                                    United States v. Usama Bin Laden, 126 F. Supp.2d 264 (S.D.N.Y. 2000)

            4.8.      Attorney-Client Confidentiality Policy and Regulation

            4.9.      Detention of Individuals who may be associated with Terrorist Activities

            4.10.    Federal Sentencing Guidelines

                        United States v. Leahy, 169 F.3d 433 (7th Cir. 1999)

            4.11.    Military Criminal Law and Bioterrorism

                        4.11.1   Tribunals 

                        4.11.2. Commissions

                        4.11.3.  Court Martial for Refusal of Vaccine


V.       Federal Law and Civil Issues Arising from Bioterrorism

            5.1       Environmental Statutes

                        Smith v. Potter, 2001 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 18625 ( November 16, 2001 )

                        Smith v. Potter, 2002 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 11878 ( July 1, 2002 )

            5.2.      Tort Claims Against the Federal Government

                        5.2.1.   Public Nuisance

                        Smith v. Potter,  2001 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 18625 ( November 16, 2001 )

                        5.2.1.   Federal Tort Claims Act

            5.4.      Federal Labor Law

Miami Area Local v. United States Postal Service, 173 F. Supp. 2d 1322 ( November 16, 2001 )

            5.5.      Vaccination liability

                        5.5.1.    Polio vaccine

                                    Reyes v. Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., 498 F.2d 1264 (5th Cir. 1974)

                                    Cunningham v. Pfizer & Co., Inc., 532 P.2d 1377 ( Okla. 1974)

                        5.5.2.    Swine flu vaccine

                                    Sparks v. Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., 431 F. Supp. 411 (W.D. Okla. 1977)

                        5.5.3.   The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986

                        5.5.4.   E.O. 13232, Indemnification of Defense Suppliers

                                      The Cipro Controversy in the Anthrax Attacks and Compulsory License Under 28 U.S.C. 1498


                                      Other Products

            5.6.      Private Insurance Liability and Federal Indemnification


VI.      Private Causes of Action Against Persons or Non-Governmental Entities Concerning Issues in Bioterrorism

            6.1.      Introduction

                        Bernard v. Whitefield Tanning Company, 78 N.H. 418, 101 A. 439 (N.H., 1917)

            6.2.      Estate of Thomas L. Morris, Jr. v. Kaiser Foundation Health Plan v. United States

                        Civ. No. PJM 02-1468, D.Md So.Div., (Filed March 28, 2002 )

6.3.      Burnett, et. al.  v. Al Baraka Investment and Dev. Corp.,, et. al., Civ. No. _____ (D.D.C., Filed August 15, 2002 )


VII.      Civil Rights and Liabilities Concerning Issues in Bioterrorism

            7.1.      Introduction

            7.2.      Preparation

Bioterrorism A Change in Our Way of Life, and a Change in our Legal Framework, op-ed, The Texas Lawyer (Monday, Nov. 5, 2001 )

                        7.2..1.       Failure to Prepare or Warn (Common lawnot in FTCA)

                                      Adequacy or Inadequacy of a Plan

                                      Failure to Warn of Potential Danger

            7.3.      Surveillance

7.3.1.   Constitutional Right of Privacy

                        7.3.2.   Fourth Amendment Protection Against Unreasonsable Search or Seizure

                                    U.S. v. Kyllo

                        7.3.3.   Surveillance systems and capabilities

                            Governments surveillance systems

                             Private surveillance systems

                        7.3.4.   Equal protection and Profiling

             7.4.      Characterization and Detection

                        7.4.1.   Equal Protection

                        7.4.2.   Substantive Due Process Rights in Privacy

             7.5.      Response

                        7.5.1.   Implementation of Quarantine

                                                    Experience in the United States with September, October 2001 Anthrax attacks

                             Military enforcement, Posse Comitatus

                        7.5.2.   CDC Smallpox Plan

                        7.5.3.   1983 Claims for Liability

                             Create or increase danger   Detaining a person and preventing self-help or failing to meet needs

                             Excessive force in carrying out official functions

                             Failing to protect persons from criminal liability

                        7.5.4.   Fifth Amendment protections

                                    Miller v. Horton, 152 Mass. 540, 26 N.E. 100 ( January 1, 1891 )

                        7.5.5.   Equal Protection


                        7.5.6.   Statutory Requirements

                             Americans With Disabilities Act ( ADA )


VIII.      International Law and Bioterrorism

            8.1.      An International History of Law and Bioterrorism

            8.2.      International Agreements

                        8.2.1.   Geneva Convention of 1925

                        8.2.2.   Biological Weapons Convention of 1972

            8.3.      Domestic laws of other countries

                        8.3.1.   Former Soviet Union

                        8.3.2.   Japan

                        8.3.3.   France

                        8.3.4.   Russian Federation

            8.4.      Ports of Entry to the United States

            8.5.      International Criminal Court


IX.       The Future of Law and Bioterrorism

            9.1.      Genetics, Technology and Bioterrorism

                        9.1.1.   Technologies

                        9.1.2.   Genetic Engineering

            9.2.      First Amendment and Restrictions on Biological Weapons Information

                        9.2.1.   Publishing in Scientific Literature

                        9.2.2.  Publishing Trade Press Books and Internet Publication by Individuals

            9.3.      Laboratory Security

            9.4.      Vaccines and Immunities

                        9.4.1.   Vaccines

                        9.4.2.   Immunities

            9.5.      International responses:  Monitoring protocol of the Biological Weapons Convention

            9.6.      Domestic response: A New way of thinking


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