Accessible Instructional Material
Documents are an important element in providing online instructional material. Follow these guidelines to ensure your content is accessible.
Documents (Word, PowerPoints, PDFs, Excel, etc.) are formatted and saved to be HTML or PDF accessible
What is an accessible document?
An accessible document is one that complies with the Web-Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 and can be read using assistive technology, such as a screen-reader program. There are several software screen reader programs, the most popular are Jaws, NVDA, Voice Over and Window Eye. Listen to this example of Jaws reading a syllabus. Most people with a visual disability will use Jaws. Voice over is free on every Apple product. NVDA and Windows Eyes is a free download for PC users.
Many people without visual disabilities utilize these programs to get an auditory and visual representation of a document or webpage. You can easily download these programs and use them for yourself to test your documents, or have long passages read to you.
To help you ensure documents can be read correctly with screen reader programs, please refer to the following resources:
Images have alt text, title and description
What is Alternative Text?
Alternative text is text that has been written to describe an image for individuals who use screen-reader programs. It is embedded as part of the document's code and is not something that sighted users typically see when viewing file or webpage.
A screen-reader program is software that reads the on‑screen content aloud and is commonly used by individuals with severe visual disabilities. Alternative text is generally short (about the size of a tweet) and typically describes the purpose, function, or take‑home message of an image. One common example is the shopping cart icon that is common to many retail Web sites. Though the image is of a shopping cart, the purpose is usually for a user to use that icon as a means to checkout or to complete one's order. Accordingly, the latter is what the alternative text should communicate.
Why Does Alternative Text Matter?
Including text-equivalent descriptions (e.g., alternative text) is a requirement of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. Specifically, if alternative text is missing, users of screen-reader programs will not have access to the images or the ideas those images are meant to convey, creating a divide in information access and in learning.
Graphic text must be an accessible image (Wordart, Wordles, etc.)
Any content that is not text must contain an alternative text. This includes charts, graphs, word art, smart art, word clouds, pictures, clip art, etc.
If your alternative text is longer than a tweet, or 140 characters, you will have to write a long description.
Tables follow software guidelines for accessibility
Tables and graphs are meaningful ways through which authors can condense information and add aesthetic value to their publications. There are, however, multiple considerations to ensuring the accessibility and the usability of those elements by individuals with disabilities.
Graphs/charts have title as alt text and a long description near graph or in text body
What is a long description?
A long description is longer version of alternative text. It is a lengthier description meant to describe a complicated image, such as a graph or a map. Screen-reader programs cannot make sense of images, so, instead, they will read the behind-the-scenes text (the alternative text/long description) in place of the images.
Videos and Audio
Including videos and audio files in your course is a great way to give your students information, and follow Universal Design of Learning. If you are planning on recording videos for your class you may find guidance at Accessible Instructional Video.
One of the most obvious accommodations for online classes are transcripts or closed captions for videos and audio. If you need assistance getting your audio/videos transcribed and captioning, please visit the TTU Captioning Assistance webpage.
Media with only audio includes transcripts (lectures, podcasts, mp3, etc.)
If your course includes only audio clips or a video of yourself talking, you do not have to have synchronized captions. You can upload a transcript of your audio and that will be sufficient. If you have a video you will need to include synchronized captions.
Videos have synchronized captions
What is captioning?
Captions are text that appear onscreen in the same window as a video. Captions capture all the significant sounds occurring in a video. Those sounds include foreground spoken audio and other significant foreground sounds. Sometimes background sounds, including music, are captioned. Federal guidelines specify that captions must be word-for-word and include correct grammar and punctuation. Additional guidance on what to caption can be found at http://accessiblerhetoric.com.
Why does captioning matter?
Including captions in your videos is a requirement of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. Specifically, if captions are missing, users who are deaf will not have access to any of the audio content, which is especially harmful if the video is a spoken lecture.
Audio descriptions are included
Audio descriptions are the only way an individuals who are blind can have access to visual information occurring in a video. Audio Descriptions are very important for all learners to access the same content in various types of format. Even if a student is not blind, they may be able to understand the content easier with an audio description.
Color is not used exclusively as an indicator of emphasis
Color is also very important when it comes to accessibility in online content. Did you know that 5% of the male population is colorblind? Be sure that you do not use color for emphasis or to convey meeting, or a portion of the population may not be able to interpret what you were intending to say.
Sufficient color contrast is provided
Another issue to be concerned about with color is to have sufficient color contrast. Again this helps people who are colorblind or with low vision.
Navigation is important to consider when looking at accessibility. You must consider navigation without the use of a mouse and consistency of the navigation tabs.
Website can be navigated with the keyboard
People with visual disabilities cannot see the screen to know where the mouse is moving. It is important that your website can be navigated with the keyboard. If you are using BlackBoard or creating styles in Word and page layouts in PowerPoint you probably will not have to worry about this. An easy way to check for websites and documents navigation is to use the tab and arrow keys to tab through your document.
Navigation tabs are consistent on each web page
Another important part of navigation is to ensure that the tabs are consistent from page to page. Blackboard and most LMSs provides this for you, but be sure to consider this if you are using a website other than Blackboard.
There are few more issues to consider to create accessible documents. Be sure you consider these issues before you complete your instructional material.
No use of flashing or blinking content
Refrain from using any flashing or blinking since it causes seizures and migraines in some users. For people who don't suffer from seizures and migraines, flashing and blinking content can often be distracting from the information you are trying to convey.
Hyperlinks are titles of websites, avoid "Click Here" or URL/web address
What is a hyperlink?
Hyperlinks are links to content that is housed outside of the main document. Often text-based documents will contain hyperlinks to multimedia material or other material that supports what is being said in the main document. Hyperlinks should be underlined and contain nongeneric link text, meaning that hyperlinked text should be descriptive---so the purpose of the link is clear as well as the media type it goes to, such as a video or a PDF or a webpage. Additionally, hyperlinks should be underlined.
Why do non-generic descriptions and underlining matter?
Nongeneric descriptions benefit all users because it is a universal way to summarize the content that the link goes to, both in terms of content and in terms of file type. It helps all users to decide whether the content is of interest to them and to determine whether they are equipped to open that file type, as well. Though underlining is not helpful to users of screen readers, underlining the text of the hyperlink does serve as a visual distinction that separates the link description from the surrounding text.
If you use a website that you can't edit, include an exit disclaimer in your syllabus and course introduction.
Example: "This file and/or Web link goes to content that is not owned, managed, or controlled by Texas Tech University (TTU). Accordingly, TTU has no control over the native accessibility of that content. Should you experience an accessibility issue in that content, please notify both your instructor and Student Disability Services. They will work with you to ensure a reasonable accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act and/or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, including a reasonable deadline extension while your accommodation is processed and implemented."